Throughout the ages man, and woman, have loved grapes. Some love them fresh.
Some love them dried as raisins. And, some love the juice and wine of this
delicious and nutritious fruit. Most of us love grapes any, and all ways.
Grapes are berries that are grown in cluster on a long lived, woody vine.
While the vast majority of grape varieties originated in Europe, there are
a number of varieties of North American origin.
A trellis filled with hanging clusters of sweet, ripe grapes, is both attractive
and a popular munching spot for home gardeners and visiting friends and
Varieties of Grapes:
Lucky for us, grapes come in all kinds of colors and varieties. In general,
they are categorized by colors: White, purple, and green being the most common.
There is also blue, black, and and red grapes. There are seeded and seedless
varieties. From a quality perspective, grapes are classified as wine, table
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Grape Vine Propagation:
Grapes are propagated by rooting sections of vine. Vineyards that need large
supplies will cut 12-14" sections of vine and store it in moist soil in the
fall. In the spring, it is planted in moist soil, where it is allowed to
root. The new vines are later planted in a new vineyard.
Home gardeners often use an easier method. In the spring, take a vine and
stretch it to the ground. Cover part of it with some garden soil. Keep the
soil moist. After it has rooted, cut the vine from the mother plant, and
transplant the new vine to it's new home in your garden.
New vines need a couple years' growth before they produce heavy loads of
luscious, sugar filled grapes.
How to Grow Grapes:
Home gardener's find grapes are easy to grow. Protecting them from animals
on the other hand, can be a real challenge.
Plant grapes in full sun. Growing grapes on a hill or slope, will help with
drainage. They grow well in dry, average soil.
Grape vines need support of a trellis or fence. Train the main vine straight
up a fence pole. Allow secondary vines to grow outward on fence posts or
wires. The tendrils of the vines will attach themselves to the fence. You
may need to tie the vine down to get it started.
Your grape vines should need little attention during the season. Be vigilant
for for insect and plant disease. Adding a little fertilizer once a month
is helpful. Water vines during droughts only.
Prune the vines in the fall, removing any tertiary vines off the secondary
vines. Thin aggressively, removing dead vines, and to allow ample room for
next year's growth.
Insects and Disease:
Occasional insect infestations occur. Treat with an insecticide.
A variety of plant diseases can afflict your grapes. They include powdery
and downy mildews, viruses, and black rot. Use fungicides early. Apply before
humid weather sets in.
Grapes are harvested late in the fall, just before the first frost. You can
pick some early for use at the table. Place a bowl of fresh grapes on the
kitchen counter and they won't stay there for long!
Making raisins? If you want to give it a try, pick some ripe grapes,
wash and remove them from the stem. It needs to be a seedless variety. Lay
them out on a pan, a screen, a plate or on paper. We recommend using
a screen. Allow them to dry in the sun with plenty of air circulation. If
you dry them outdoors, watch for critters. Bring them in at night, or when
rain is forecasted.
In recent years, medical studies have suggested red wines have anti-oxidants
that can help to lower cholesterol, and reduce the risk of heart ailments.
The same is true for red grapes and grape juices.
More Gardening Resources:
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